The Heroism of Nurse Ellen Savage During the Sinking of the Centaur in Moreton Bay

Amidst the turmoil of World War II, Ellen Savage emerged as the sole surviving nurse from the devastating sinking of the hospital ship Centaur by a Japanese submarine off Moreton Bay.

Departure and Ambush

On the 12th of May 1943, as night descended upon Sydney Harbour, the hospital ship Centaur set sail on its final voyage towards Port Moresby. Its mission was to aid those injured in the intense battles of Buna and Gona.

The Centaur, with its bright lights and clear Red Cross markings, served as a symbol of hope and a safe haven amidst the chaos of World War II. On board were 332 individuals, including the crew, medical staff, Australian Army Nursing Service nurses, and soldiers from the 2/12th Field Ambulance. All of them were united in a common purpose of providing care and comfort to those in need. 

Centaur in Moreton Bay
Photo Credit: State Library of Queensland

Nurse Ellen Savage was one of the twelve nurses aboard the ship, fully aware of the dangers ahead. The waters through which they would be passing were a dangerous battleground, haunted by the ghosts of merchant ships that had previously been sunk by enemy submarines. However, the Centaur’s clear identification as a hospital ship provided a semblance of protection. It gave hope that even in war, humanity’s respect for the sanctuaries of the wounded and sick would prevail.

Whilst sailing through the night, the Centaur relied on traditional methods of war to protect itself. Nurse Savage and her coworkers went about their work determined and focused, getting ready to treat the wounded they would soon receive. Despite the underlying tension, there was a sense of camaraderie among the crew and medical personnel, all united in their mission to help those in need.

However, the tranquillity of their passage was shattered in the early hours of the 14th of May. Without warning, a torpedo fired by a Japanese submarine commanded by Lieutenant Commander Nakagawa struck the Centaur. The attack was a surprise, a brutal reminder of the unpredictable nature of war. 

Nurse Savage was thrust into a fight for survival whils resting in her bunk. The explosion that rocked the ship was just the beginning of a night of terror and tragedy.

In those first moments following the attack, Nurse Savage’s training and instincts as a nurse and a soldier kicked in. Despite the chaos that enveloped her, she remained focused on the safety and well-being of her colleagues and the wounded under her care. 

As the Centaur began to succumb to the sea, Nurse Savage, with remarkable presence of mind, assisted in evacuating patients and fellow staff members, even as the prospects of their own survival dwindled.

Rescue and Aftermath

The survivors of the Centaur tragedy were stranded in the Pacific for over a day, clinging to fragments of what was once a hospital ship. Finally, after 32 harrowing hours, the USS Mugford, an American destroyer, spotted them. The Mugford arrived as an unexpected saviour on the horizon, bringing hope to the survivors after their long ordeal.

The aftermath of the rescue was a time of mixed emotions. The grief of loss tempered relief at being saved; out of the 332 individuals who had boarded the Centaur in Sydney, only 64 were plucked from the ocean’s grasp. The survivors, including Nurse Savage, bearing the physical and emotional scars of their ordeal, were returned to the Australian mainland, where news of the disaster and the heroic rescue operation was met with shock and mourning across the nation.

Nurse Ellen Savage
Nurse Ellen Savage interview after the rescue
Photo Credit: Australian War Memorial

The sinking of the Centaur was Australia’s biggest loss to submarine warfare in the war. It prompted a national outpouring of support for survivors and families. Funds were raised to help the wounded and bereaved. The rescue operation became a celebrated chapter of heroism, highlighting the courage of the Allied forces.

Honouring the Lost

In 1947, Nurse Savage received a Florence Nightingale Memorial scholarship that allowed her to pursue further studies in England. She achieved a diploma in nursing administration from the Royal College of Nursing. She continued her nursing career in Sydney until the 1950s and was a pivotal figure in the foundation of the College of Nursing, Australia.

In Brisbane, Nurse Savage was also instrumental in establishing the Centaur Memorial Fund for Nurses in 1948. This fund was a tribute to the medical personnel who perished. The fund continues to support nurses to this day.

Nurse Ellen Savage retired in the late 1960s due to her failing health and shortly after an ANZAC Day reunion in 1985, she passed away in Sydney.

Discovery of the Wreck in 2009

The discovery of the Centaur wreckage after 66 years was an emotional event for Australia. After years of speculation and tireless search, the ship’s final resting place was finally found on the 20th of December 2009. 

In the late 2000s, a team aboard the Seahorse Spirit search vessel used advanced technology to locate the Centaur off Moreton Island. Their goal was to honour the memory of those who were lost.

The team faced vast challenges searching for the lost Centaur ship in the ocean’s depths, alongside numerous other sunken ships. However, their determination and calculated approach narrowed down the search area.

After seven days, sonar equipment detected a large, upright, mostly intact vessel. Excited but cautious, the team awaited confirmation from divers that this was the Centaur. Unique features and Red Cross markings identified the ship. 

The discovery was both bitter and sweet, as it served as a reminder of the tragedy. The announcement was made with respect, recognising the site’s significance to the crew’s and passengers’ families. The Australian government declared the wreckage a war grave, providing protection and respect for generations to come.

Published 11-April-2024

Redcliffe’s Family Turtle Expo Day: A Call to Protect Turtles

Redcliffe locals are issuing a call to action to raise awareness about the plight of turtles in Moreton Bay, particularly those nesting on Peninsula beaches, with the upcoming Family Turtle Expo Day aiming to shed light on the issue.

Organised by the Rotary Club of Redcliffe Sunrise, the Environmental Sustainability Rotary Action Group (ESRAG), and Oceania, the Family Turtle Expo Day will occur on April 20 from 10:00 a.m. to 2:000 p.m. at Scarborough’s Queens Beach North. Admission is free to all.

Colin Scobie, the initiative’s spokesperson, emphasised the event’s relevance by pointing out that turtles usually nest from October to March, and the hatching process happens from December to May, reaching its peak in February and March. He highlighted the significance of the community’s vigilance, especially along Queens Beach North, where the warm, high sand embankments above the high tide line provide perfect nesting grounds.

In 2010, there was an event where hundreds of turtle hatchlings became disoriented by street lighting and wandered onto the road. Scobie emphasised the importance of increased awareness and protection measures to prevent this from happening again. As a solution, turtle-friendly street lighting was installed along the affected stretch of road.

Scobie cautioned that turtles have an inherent ability to find their way back to their usual nesting areas, including Queens Beach North. He emphasized the potential effects of climate change and predicted a rise in nesting activity on the Peninsula due to favourable conditions.

The expo is organized to address the challenges faced by turtles, especially marine litter, within the protected Ramsar site of Moreton Bay. Inspired by the ‘Marine Debris’ exhibit at Redcliffe Museum, Vivien Harris and Karen Catterall have designed turtle-shaped boards decorated with trash collected mainly from Clontarf Beach.

Redcliffe Family Turtle Expo Day
Photo Credit: Rotary Club of Redcliffe/Facebook

Their artwork, showcased at the event, aims to raise awareness about the pervasive issue of beach litter and encourage responsible waste disposal practices.

Despite their clean-up efforts, Harris and Catterall were dismayed by the debris that had accumulated on local beaches. They highlighted the role of stormwater runoff in transporting land-based litter to the sea.

Interactive activities have been planned for an upcoming event, which includes turtle painting sessions for children and the chance to observe turtle nests with the Bribie Island Turtle Trackers. The aim is to communicate a message of environmental stewardship that will stay with attendees. Everyone is encouraged to reduce their plastic usage in daily life to help protect threatened species.

The Family Turtle Expo Day aims to promote collective commitment to safeguarding the region’s marine biodiversity by encouraging broad participation from diverse community segments.

Published 18-March-2024

$9.6 Million Allocated for FOGO Collection in Moreton Bay

A substantial $9.6 million investment has been earmarked for Moreton Bay, which will bolster FOGO collection in the city, marking a crucial step towards Queensland’s commitment to enhancing resource recovery and reducing greenhouse gas emissions. 

This allocation of funds is part of a larger $151 million pledge aimed at aiding councils across Queensland in implementing comprehensive food organic and garden organic (FOGO) waste collection services.

Organic waste is a significant contributor to greenhouse gas emissions when left to decompose in landfills. However, it possesses the potential to be converted into reusable products such as mulch or compost, thereby mitigating its adverse environmental impact. 

Under this substantial funding initiative, over 116,000 lime-green lidded organics kerbside bins will be distributed to households throughout the Moreton Bay region. Additionally, efforts will be made to harmonise the colours of some existing bins in line with a nationwide drive to standardise bin lid colours for greater consistency.

The Council will adopt a phased approach to the introduction of FOGO Collection:

  • In Stage 1, a conditional opt-out Garden Organics (GO) service will commence in early December 2024. 
  • Stage 2 will incorporate the collection of food waste, contingent upon the availability of a suitable FOGO processing facility capable of accommodating all FOGO materials collected within the city.
FOGO Collection
Photo Credit: Media Statements/QLD

“FOGO is a resource recovery project with the potential to bring our region’s recycling rate from 45 percent to over 60 percent by adding a new lime green lidded bin for organic material made up of food and garden waste,” Mayor of the City of Moreton Bay, Peter Flannery, said.

“Council currently produces electricity from landfill gases at its three landfill sites to power up to 7,000 homes in our region. This additional bin service is in line with our commitment to investing in sustainability and our local lifestyle as our city’s population booms.”

Minister for the Environment and the Great Barrier Reef, Leanne Linard, commented on the significance of this initiative:

 “Most garden and food waste currently ends up in landfill, where it emits methane gas and leaves significant organic resources wasted. That’s why introducing food organics and garden organics (FOGO) is the next vital step in our resource recovery efforts.”

“We are committed to halving the amount of food waste generated by 2030 and diverting 80 percent of organic waste away from landfill. Organic waste can be turned into high-value compost, mulch, and soil products that can be used for a range of environmental projects.”

Published 27-Jan-2024

Wildlife Rescue Volunteers Needed In Redcliffe, North Lakes

A heartfelt appeal has been made by Wildlife Rescue Queensland, a not-for-profit organisation dedicated to the rescue, rehabilitation, and release of native Australian wildlife. This call for action is particularly aimed at residents in the Redcliffe Peninsula and North Lakes area, where a shortage of volunteers poses a significant challenge to the organisation’s mission.

Wildlife Rescue Queensland serves primarily the Moreton Bay region and is vital for the protection and care of injured or orphaned animals. 

Individuals willing to become members and actively participate in rescuing and transporting wildlife will aid in their treatment or humane euthanization. The organisation conducts three transport trips a day, ensuring the animals receive the necessary care. Many of the rescued animals are subsequently cared for at Australia Zoo.

The diverse range of animals rescued by Wildlife Rescue Queensland includes birds, ringtail possums, brushtail possums, wallabies, koalas, echidnas, kangaroos, platypus, snakes, and turtles.

Colleen Ogilvie, an experienced volunteer with the organisation, emphasised the pressing need for more active volunteers in the Redcliffe suburb. 

“We desperately need more active volunteers who will be able to tend to rescues in Redcliffe, Scarborough, Woody Point, Kippa-Ring, and North Lakes,” Colleen said. The lack of volunteers in these areas leaves a gap in responding to distress calls for sick or injured wildlife.

An information session is scheduled for Wednesday, 8 Nov 2023, from 5:30 p.m. to 8:30 p.m. at Katrina’s School of Hair and Beauty, located at 4/12 Leda Blvd, Morayfield.

This session is aimed at individuals interested in joining Wildlife Rescue Queensland. The session will provide insight into the organisation’s mission, the responsibilities of rescuers, what should be included in a rescue pack, and the potential paths for becoming a rescuer or carer.

Those interested may contact 0421 269 257 by noon Tuesday, 7 Nov 2023. Additionally, interested individuals can also send an email to for registration.

For more information about Wildlife Rescue Queensland and their noble cause, please visit their official website or their Facebook page.

Published 6-Nov-2023

Kippa-Ring Tragedy: Man Apprehended in Drain After Allegedly Fleeing Horror Crash With One Dead

Police dogs tracked the male driver of an allegedly stolen Holden Commodore to a drain 4 km away from the scene of a tragic collision that occurred in Kippa-Ring, involving said car and a Suzuki Swift carrying two women, one of whom died at the scene.

Emergency services promptly responded to the scene at the junction of Anzac Avenue and Oleander Street in Kippa-Ring, following reports of the collision that occurred at approximately 6:53 a.m. on Friday, 22 Sept 2023. .

The elderly fatality was trapped in her vehicle and received immediate CPR at the accident scene. She sucumbed to her injuries. Her adult daughter suffered serious injuries and has been rushed to the hospital.

The 27-year-old male driver of the Commodore fled the accident scene on foot and was subsequently discovered in a drain near Kayo Stadium in Redcliffe, four kilometres from the accident scene.

Preliminary investigations indicated that the Suzuki was making a left turn out of Oleander Street when it was struck by the eastbound-travelling Holden Commodore on Anzac Avenue. According to the authorities, the utility vehicle was stolen from a Stafford address sometime between 18 and 19 Sept 2023.

“It’s a terrible scene for emergency personnel, a terrible tragedy for anyone involved,” Inspector Craig White of the Moreton Bay Police said.  

“Our units did an exceptional job in finding him; he was tracked 4 kilometers from the scene by police dogs and was taken into custody without further injury.

The Queensland Police Services charged the man in custody, who hails from Aspley, with charges of “dangerous operation of a motor vehicle causing death, dangerous operation of a motor vehicle causing grievous bodily harm, driver fail to remain at incident and render assistance, unlawful use of a motor vehicle and stealing.”

Currently, officers from the Forensic Crash Unit and detectives from Redcliffe are conducting a thorough investigation into the circumstances surrounding this tragic incident.

Authorities are urging anyone who witnessed the collision or possesses dashcam footage of the event to come forward and cooperate with the ongoing investigation.

Published 23-Sept-2023

Suttons Beach Pavilion To Be Torn Down And Replaced

Suttons Beach Pavilion has played host to countless weddings and parties for decades, but did you know that this iconic, art deco-style building will likely be demolished following the release of an independent report suggesting that its renovation would be impractical?

Read: Engineering Firm Tasked to Investigate Structural Integrity of the Iconic Suttons Beach Pavilion

A structural investigation report prepared by independent experts Covey Associates revealed that repairing the pavilion would be inappropriate due to the “significant remediation and rectification works required to meet current building compliance and serviceability.” 

Both the Pavilions 1 and 2 had a history of water ingress issues, which means it will require extensive removal of the building’s structural elements to facilitate the access necessary to complete the repairs.

Suttons Beach Pavilion
Photo credit: ThatGuy/Google Maps

The 600-page report also highlighted that there’s “no guarantee of extended durability and residual life” if the renovations are carried out. 

Moreton Bay Regional Council will be looking at options for replacing the building, which will be discussed in a meeting in April 2023.

Suttons Beach Pavilion
Photo credit: Haddie Middleton/Google Maps

As early as now, there are already some suggestions from the community including a new structure reflecting the original 1930s but with a restaurant or food outlet. There have also been calls to retain the rotunda which was used as backdrop for many weddings over the years.

“It is expected that after these options are presented the public will have their opportunity to help determine what new structure will replace the Pavilion for future generations to appreciate and enjoy, back to its roots as a true community use facility for all residents of our region to enjoy equally and fairly for decades to come,” said Councillor Mark Booth.

History of the Suttons Beach Pavilion

Suttons Beach Pavilion
Photo credit: Moreton Bay Regional Council Libraries

The original pavilion, which consisted of a bathing pavilion and kiosk for beachgoers, was built in 1934. The pavilion was designed by architect George Brockwell Gill.

The former Redcliffe Town Council opened a new two-storey pavilion on the site in 1937, based on the design of architect Clifford E. Plant. Mr Plant also owned a property in Redcliffe, which allowed him to personally oversee its construction. 

Significant alterations were done over time, including the addition of a rotunda in 1998. The current pavilion, which served as a function centre was constructed in 2002.

Photo credit: Trent B/Google Maps

Suttons Beach Pavilion was acquired by the Moreton Bay Regional Council in 2006. An assessment done in 2018 revealed that very little of the original pavilion survived over time.

Read: Moreton Bay Reclassification From Region to City Now Under Review

According to the Council, what people see today, which is the faux art deco style, is not a true reflection of the original build form, but how it’s used when the building was extended and modified.

To read more about the testing and findings, visit Council’s website.

Published 8-March-2023

A Brave Life Founder Melissa Redsell Named 2023 Queensland Australia’s Local Hero

Congratulations to Melissa Redsell, the founder of A Brave Life, a Moreton Bay charity for vulnerable mums, for being honoured as Queensland’s 2023 representative to the Australia’s Local Hero awards.

She will represent the state at the national awards in Canberra in January 2023. 

This local hero was in Year 12 when she had her first baby. Amidst the struggles she faced and the limited support she received as a young mum within a dysfunctional family life, Melissa graduated high school whilst seven months heavy with a child. 

Melissa didn’t let the stigma and judgment she experienced as a single mum prevent her from becoming a success as she attended the university to earn a Bachelor of Nursing Science, a Graduate Diploma in Midwifery, and a Postgraduate Certificate in Sexual Health. 

As a healthcare worker, Melissa knew firsthand that single or teenage mums need all the help they can get. What began as a simple gesture to gift young mums with newborn essentials gave birth to her charity.

In 2022, A Brave New Life gifted more than 8,000 baby bundle care packages to vulnerable mothers in Queensland. Her charity also provides support for mothers dealing with unplanned pregnancy, domestic violence, homelessness, poverty and trauma.  

“This award is not for me but for all the teenage mothers out there,” Mel said after she found out she was a finalist. “The unseen heroes who face ongoing stigma and judgement.”

Aside from Melissa Redsell, the other winners who will represent the state in Canberra are:

  • Queensland Australian of the Year – William Barton
  • Queensland Senior Australian of the Year – Claude Lyle Harvey OAM 
  • Queensland Young Australian of the Year – Talei Elu 

“The 2023 Queensland Australian of the Year recipients are remarkable people who have inspired us through their words and actions, and they will be wonderful representatives of our great State at the national event in January,” Premier Annastacia Palaszczuk said.

“I congratulate the recipients and all of the nominees for their great work and achievements which help to make Queensland such a great place to live, work and raise a family.”

Redcliffe Property Market Exhibits Double-Digit Rise

Redcliffe has shown impressive double-digit growth in the past 12 months ending June 2021, a sure sign that this Moreton Bay suburb 40 km north of Brisbane, long viewed as up-and-coming, has arrived. With its laid-back, family-friendly lifestyle, Redcliffe offers first-rate bayside living in a high-growth location that’s still relatively affordable, compared to other waterfront suburbs.

Over the years, Redcliffe’s property market has had a steady increase as more people seek the seaside and migrate to coastal towns. This peninsula, which has been undervalued for so long, is slowly coming into its own as an enviable lifestyle residential community that’s no longer just appealing to retirees. Even families and first home buyers are moving into this growing area.

From July 2020 to June 2021, the housing market in Redcliffe has performed at an impressive rate, making the property more valuable with the median house price exhibiting a 21 percent rise, according to Property Market Updates

The uptick shows the median house price above the half-million mark at $530,000, up from $438,000 in the previous year. Redcliffe’s house listings stayed an average of 51 days on the market as an active interest in listings shook up buyers and investors. 

Photo Credit: Property Market Updates

A five-bedroom beachfront home on Prince Edward Parade was the most expensive property sold during the period ending June 2021 at $2,150,000. This lavish house with plantation shutters and an upstairs verandah overlooking the bay evokes a resort vibe.

Unit Price Growth

Redcliffe’s unit market also performed very well as the median unit price jumped by 12.50 percent, sitting at $450,000 for the period from July 2020 to June 2021. There were 247 units sold with listings staying an average of 94 days on market. 

Though most buyers prefer houses over units in Redcliffe, sales activity for apartment living is still remarkable because of a sizeable market for downsizers. 

Photo Credit: Property Market Updates

About Redcliffe

Redcliffe used to be a popular beach hideaway decades ago. As other suburbs laid claim to the stature in recent years, this seaside location evolved into a residential locale, with rapidly changing infrastructure, facilities, and amenities.

Although it’s a good 40 minutes away from the bustling nightlife and other recreation or entertainment found in Brisbane’s inner-city suburbs, Redcliffe has plenty of good seafood restaurants and cafes for laidback leisure dining for families and couples. 

Photo Credit: Google Maps

The suburb has several bike paths and walkways, a handful of foreshore swimming pool facilities (Dolphins Fitness and Aquatic), and the beautiful Scarborough Beach Park for outdoor play with the kids.  

“We moved here from Sydney 10 years ago and couldn’t be happier. It’s like living in paradise. We’ve got a water view from our unit – such affordable luxury would be out of our price range anywhere else.”

Stella Burnell, Homely

“I fell in love with Redcliffe over 20 years ago, the first time coming over the bridge. I didn’t get the chance to move here until 10 years ago, and couldn’t be happier. I love the well-maintained foreshore, beautiful lagoon area, the restaurants, and the people.”

Linda Peters, Homely

“The Government has invested heavily into the Redcliffe peninsula and this has lead to rapid gentrification over the last decade. This has encouraged developers to build waterfront luxury apartments and small business owners to open up their cafes and restaurants.”

Richardj4, Homely

Moreton Bay Celebrates 25 Years of Whale Watching at Humpback Highway

Did you know that it’s been 25 years since humpback highway in Moreton Bay became a favourite tourist destination for whale watching? The region has recently re-opened this annual winter spectacular.

In early June 2021, Tourism Minister Stirling Hinchcliffe and State Member for Redcliffe Yvette D’Ath joined Moreton Bay Regional Council Mayor Peter Flannery aboard the MV Eye Spy, one of the vessels from Brisbane Whale Watching, to officially open this year’s whale watching season. The vessel took the officials around Moreton Bay for some sightseeing and to potentially spot a trail of humpback whales in the water. 

Mr Hinchcliffe said that Brisbane Whale Watching, the only whale watching provider in the region, has been a shining example of resilience as Queensland rebuilds from the pandemic fallout. 

“It was terrific to see Captain Kerry take the first booking of our Brisbane Holiday Dollars initiative and then benefit from a further 650 bookings, as part of the Palaszczuk Government’s Economic Recovery Plan,” the minister said

Before the pandemic, humpback highway received over 1.5 million tourists a year both from international and interstate locations. With international borders still under restriction, Mr Hinchcliffe hopes that locals will take advantage of this opportunity to reconnect with the magnificence that happens in Moreton Bay every June to November.

On the other hand, Mayor Flannery said some 30,000-plus humpback whales are expected to turn out the coast. 

“We’re hoping for one of our biggest whale watching seasons yet. Moreton Bay waters off Redcliffe are the home-run on the east coast humpback highway and the place to see these wonderful creatures at their playful and entertaining best,” the mayor said. 

MV Eye Spy Captain Kerry Lopez said that the number of humpback whales has grown from 2,000 to 33,000 when they first started the tours in 1996.

“Seeing a whale on TV is nothing like the power of seeing these majestic animals in real life, we regularly get grown adults crying and saying it’s one of the best things they’ve seen in their life, it’s a real bucket list thing to do.”

Bookings are highly encouraged for the tours amidst COVID-safe circumstances. The tours depart from the Redcliffe Jetty. 

Kaufland Plans to Open in Morayfield at Moreton Bay

Kaufland, a well-known German supermarket has announced its plan of opening a store in Morayfield at Moreton Bay.

Just last August 2019, Kaufland released its plan of expansion in Australia by opening up massive stores in Victoria and Queensland. 

Kaufland is a leading grocery chain from Europe and also a subsidiary of the Schwarz Group—the world’s fourth largest retailer. But just like any other businesses, Kaufland had its humble beginnings when it first opened in Germany in 1984. Soon, Kafuland had grown and expanded across Europe by operating a total number of 1,300 stores with 150,000 employees.

And now, this German supermarket giant is already making its name known locally by submitting applications to build one-stop supermarkets at Moreton Bay, Toowoomba, and Gold Coast.

Morayfield Village Retail Centre
Photo credit:

At Moreton Bay, Kaufland announced that they had already acquired the Morayfield Village Retail Centre, and that they have a clear view in transforming it into one of their stores. 

There is still no final date of its opening, but the German supermarket is expected to be up and running by 2020.

Having Kaufland’s site be constructed right next to the Morayfield Regional Shopping Centre poses a stiff competition amongst other local retailers within the precinct.

It is without a doubt that Kaufland does not shy away from other market players who are already well-established in the area including Coles, Woolworths, Target, Kmart, Big W and Aldi.

What to Expect at Kaufland

Photo credit:

A typical Kaufland store is around 4000 square metres. It will have its own butcher, bakery, and a variety of small businesses such as sushi bars and cafes.

Kaufland is also set on delivering competitive prices across all its food and non-food items. Local, regional and international products too will be available at the store.

In fact, Kaufland prides itself on being a one-stop-shop destination retailer that covers people’s everyday needs across all price categories.